USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. In response,
US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and
technology applicable to the military (:amk:)
- 1962 Paul Baran, RAND: "On Distributed Communications Networks"
- Packet-switching networks; no single outage point
- 1967 ACM Symposium on Operating Principles
- Plan presented for a packet-switching network
- 1968 Network presentation to the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
- 1969 ARPANET commissioned by DoD for research into networking
- First node at UCLA [Network Measurements Center - Xerox DSS 7:SEX]
and soon after at: [legend = function - system:os]
- Stanford Research Institute (SRI) [NIC - SDS940/Genie]
- UCSB [Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics - IBM 360/75:OS/MVT]
- U of Utah [Graphics (hidden line removal) - DEC PDP-10:Tenex]
- use of Information Message Processors (IMP) [Honeywell 516 mini
computer with 12K of memory] developed by Bolt Beranek and Newman,
First Request for Comment (RFC): "Host Software" by Steve Crocker
- 1970 ALOHAnet developed by Norman Abrahamson, U of Hawaii (:sk2:)
ARPANET hosts start using Network Control Protocol (NCP).
- 1971 15 nodes (23 hosts): UCLA, SRI, UCSB, U of Utah, BBN, MIT, RAND, SDC,
Harvard, Lincoln Lab, Stanford, UIU(C), CWRU, CMU, NASA/Ames
- 1972 International Conference on Computer Communications with
demonstration of ARPANET between 40 machines organized by Bob Kahn.
InterNetworking Working Group (INWG) created to address need
for establishing agreed upon protocols. Chairman: Vinton Cerf.
Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents email program to send messages across a
distributed network. (:amk:)
- 1973 First international connections to the ARPANET: England and Norway
Bob Metcalfe's Harvard PhD Thesis outlines idea for Ethernet (:amk:)
- 1974 Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network
Internetworking" which specified in detail the design of a
Transmission Control Program (TCP). (:amk:)
BBN opens Telenet, commercial version of ARPANET (:sk2:)
- 1975 Operational management of Internet transferred to DCA (now DISA)
"Jargon File", by Raphael Finkel at SAIL, first released (:esr:)
- 1970s Store and Forward Networks
- Used electronic mail technology and extended it to conferencing
HM Elizabeth, Queen of the United Kingdom sends out an e-mail
(anyone know the exact year?)
- 1976 UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed
with UNIX one year later.
- 1977 THEORYNET created at U of Wisconsin providing electronic mail to
over 100 researchers in computer science (using uucp).
- 1979 Meeting between U of Wisconsin, DARPA, NSF, and computer scientists
from many universities to establish a Computer Science Department
research computer network.
USENET established using uucp between Duke and UNC by Tom Truscott
and Steve Bellovin.
First MUD, MUD1, by Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw at U of Essex
ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB)
- 1981 BITNET, the "Because Its Time NETwork"
- Started as a cooperative network at the City University of New York,
with first connection to Yale (:feg:)
- Provides electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute
- Unlike USENET, where client s/w is needed, electronic mail is the
only tool necessary.
CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) built by UCAR and BBN through seed
money granted by NSF to provide networking services (specially
email) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET. CSNET
later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network. (:amk:)
Minitel (Teletel) is deployed across France by French Telecom.
- 1982 DCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and
Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP,
for ARPANET. (:vgc:)
- This leads to one of the first definitions of an "internet"
as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP,
and "Internet" as connected TCP/IP internets.
- DoD declares TCP/IP suite to be standard for DoD (:vgc:)
EUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide email and
USENET services. (:glg:)
- 1983 Name server developed at U of Wisconsin, no longer requiring users
to know the exact path to other systems.
Cutover from NCP to TCP/IP (1 January)
CSNET / ARPANET gateway put in place
ARPANET split into ARPANET and MILNET; the latter became integrated
with the Defense Data Network created the previous year.
Desktop workstations come into being, many with Berkeley UNIX which
includes IP networking software.
Need switches from having a single, large time sharing computer
connected to Internet per site, to connection of an entire local
Internet Activities Board (IAB) established, replacing ICCB
Berkeley releases 4.2BSD incorporating TCP/IP (:mpc:)
EARN (European Academic and Research Network) established. Very
similar to the way BITNET works.
FidoNet developed by Tom Jennings.
- 1984 Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced.
# of hosts breaks 1,000
JUNET (Japan Unix Network) established using UUCP.
JANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK using the
Coloured Book protocols.
- 1986 NSFNET created (backbone speed of 56Kbps)
- NSF establishes 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing
power for all (JVNC@Princeton, PSC@Pittsburgh, SDSC@UCSD, NCSA@UIUC,
- ARPANET bureaucracy keeps it from being used to interconnect
centers and NSFNET comes into being with the aid of NASA and DOE.
- This allows an explosion of connections, especially from
Cleveland Freenet (start of NPTN) comes on-line (:sk2:)
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news
performance over TCP/IP.
Mail Exchanger (MX) records developed by Craig Partridge allowing
non-IP network hosts to have domain addresses.
- 1987 NSF signs a cooperative agreement to manage the NSFNET backbone with
Merit Network, Inc. (IBM and MCI involvement was through an agreement
with Merit). Merit, IBM, and MCI later founded ANS.
UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and
1000th RFC: "Request For Comments reference guide"
# of hosts breaks 10,000
# of BITNET hosts breaks 1,000
- 1988 Internet worm burrows through the Net, affecting ~ 6,000 of the 60,000
hosts on the Internet (:ph1:)
DoD chooses to adopt OSI and sees use of TCP/IP as an interim. US
Government OSI Profile (GOSIP) defines the set of protocols to be
supported by Government purchased products (:gck:)
- 1989 # of hosts breaks 100,000
NSFNET backbone upgraded to T1 (1.544Mbps)
RIPE (Reseaux IP Europeens) formed (by European service providers) to
ensure the necessary administrative and technical coordination to
allow the operation of the pan-European IP Network. (:glg:)
First relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the
Internet: MCI Mail through the Corporation for the National Research
Initiative (CNRI), and Compuserve through Ohio State U (:jg1,ph1:)
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task
Force (IRTF) comes into existence under the IAB
Corporation for Research and Education Networking (CREN) is formed
by the merge of CSNET into BITNET
- 1990 ARPANET ceases to exist
Electronic Frontier Foundation is founded by Mitch Kapor
Archie released by Peter Deutsch, Alan Emtage, and Bill Heelan at McGill
Hytelnet released by Peter Scott (U of Saskatchewan)
ISO Development Environment (ISODE) developed to provide an approach for
OSI migration for the DoD. ISODE software allows OSI application to
operate over TCP/IP (:gck:)
- 1991 Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX) Association, Inc. formed by General
Atomics (CERFnet), Performance Systems International, Inc. (PSInet),
and UUNET Technologies, Inc. (AlterNet) (:glg:)
Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS), invented by Brewster Kahle,
released by Thinking Machines Corporation
Gopher released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the U of Minn
US High Performance Computing Act (Gore 1) establishes the National
Research and Education Network (NREN)
- 1992 Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered
World-Wide Web released by CERN; Tim Berners-Lee developer
# of hosts breaks 1,000,000
NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736Mbps)
First MBONE audio multicast (March) and video multicast (November)
IAB reconstituted as the Internet Architecture Board and becomes
part of the Internet Society
- 1993 InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: (:sc1:)
- directory and database services (AT&T)
- registration services (Network Solutions Inc.)
- information services (General Atomics/CERFnet)
US White House comes on-line:
- President Bill Clinton: email@example.com
- Vice-President Al Gore: firstname.lastname@example.org
- First Lady Hillary Clinton: email@example.com (-:rhz:-)
Internet Talk Radio begins broadcasting (:sk2:)
United Nations and World Bank come on-line (:vgc:)
US National Information Infrastructure Act
Businesses and media really take notice of the Internet
Mosaic takes the Internet by storm; WWW proliferates at a 341,634%
annual growth rate of service traffic. Gopher's growth is 997%.
- 1994 Communities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet
US Senate and House provide information servers
First flower shop taking orders via the Internet
Shopping malls arrive on the Internet
Mass marketing finds its way to the Internet with mass e-mailings
First cyberstation, RT-FM, broadcasts from Interop in Las Vegas
The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests that
GOSIP should incorporate TCP/IP and drop the "OSI-only"requirement (:gck:)
Arizona law firm of Canter & Siegel "spam" the Internet with email
advertising green card lottery services; Net citizens flame back
Worms of a new kind find their way around the Net - WWW Worms (W4),
joined by Spiders, Wanderers, Crawlers, and Snakes ...
"A Day in the Life of the Internet" begs to be published (:rhz:)
You might be interested in a list of Internet Country Codes.
Internet growth summary:
Date Hosts | Date Hosts Networks Domains
----- --------- + ----- --------- -------- -------
1969 4 | 07/89 130,000 650 3,900
04/71 23 | 10/89 159,000 837
06/74 62 | 10/90 313,000 2,063 9,300
03/77 111 | 01/91 376,000 2,338
08/81 213 | 07/91 535,000 3,086 16,000
05/82 235 | 10/91 617,000 3,556 18,000
08/83 562 | 01/92 727,000 4,526
10/84 1,024 | 04/92 890,000 5,291 20,000
10/85 1,961 | 07/92 992,000 6,569 16,300
02/86 2,308 | 10/92 1,136,000 7,505 18,100
11/86 5,089 | 01/93 1,313,000 8,258 21,000
12/87 28,174 | 04/93 1,486,000 9,722 22,000
07/88 33,000 | 07/93 1,776,000 13,767 26,000
10/88 56,000 | 10/93 2,056,000 16,533 28,000
01/89 80,000 | 01/94 2,217,000 20,539 30,000
| 07/94 3,212,000 25,210 46,000
____# Countries____ ____# Countries____
Date I B U F O Date I B U F O
----- --- --- --- --- --- ----- --- --- --- --- ---
09/91 31 47 79 49 01/93 50 50 101 72 31
12/91 33 46 78 53 04/93 56 51 107 79 31
02/92 38 46 92 63 08/93 59 51 117 84 31
04/92 40 47 90 66 25 02/94 62 51 125 88 31
08/92 49 46 89 67 26 07/94 75 52 129 89 31
(I)nternet (B)ITNET (U)UCP (F)IDONET (O)SI
USENET growth summary:
Date Sites ~MB ~Posts Groups | Date Sites ~MB ~Posts Groups
---- ----- --- ------ ------ + ---- ------- --- ------ ------
1979 3 2 3 | 1986 2200 2.0 946 241
1980 15 10 | 1987 5200 2.1 957 259
1981 150 0.5 20 | 1988 7800 4.4 1933 381
1982 400 35 | HELP: Where is data archived for
1983 600 120 | this period 1989-1992?
1984 900 225 | 1993 69,000 50 19,362
1985 1300 1.0 375 | 1994 190,000 190 72,755
~ approximate: MB - megabytes per day, Posts - articles per day
Comments & corrections should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org
Hobbes' Internet Timeline Copyright (c)1993, 1994 by Robert H Zakon.
Permission is granted for use of this document in whole or in part for non-commercial purposes as long as appropriate credit is given to the author/maintainer.
For commercial uses, please contact the author first.
Hobbes' Internet Timeline FAQ:
- Q: Why did you compile Hobbes' Internet Timeline?
A: For use in the Internet courses I teach: Introduction to the Internet,
Internet Tools Administration, and Net Surfing 101.
- Q: How do I get Hobbes' Internet Timeline?
A: For now, you can send an e-mail to email@example.com. You will
receive an automated reply with the Timeline. For comments/corrections
please use firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Q: What do you do at MITRE?
A: I design the soccer shoe of the future :-) Nah, actually, I wear the
following hats: Internet Evangelist, HCI Engineer, Systems Integrator,
System Administrator, Instructor, He with the Most Toys
- Q: Is your license plate really NET SURF?
A: Yes, and there is a frame around it with INTERNET at the top, and my
e-mail address at the bottom. (My wife is too embarrassed to drive it:)
[ I realize the question below is outdated, but I leave it as proof of
my prediction powers :-]
- Q: Who do you think is going to win the World Cup?
A: Brasil, of course! (I was born in Rio de Janeiro ...)
A: Peddie (Ala Viva!), CWRU (North Side), Amici Usque Ad Aras (OH Epsilon)
- Q: E-mail me if you know
Hobbes' Internet Timeline was compiled from a number of sources, with some
of the stand-outs being:
- Cerf, Vinton (as told to Bernard Aboba). "How the Internet Came to Be." This article appears in "The Online User's Encyclopedia," by Bernard Aboba.
- Hardy, Henry. "The History of the Net." Master's Thesis, School of Communications, Grand Valley State University.
- Hauben, Ronda and Michael. "The Netizens and the Wonderful World of the Net."
- Kulikowski, Stan II. "A Timeline of Network History." (author's email below)
- Quarterman, John. "The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems
Worldwide." Bedford, MA: Digital Press. 1990
- Internet growth summary compiled from:
- zone program reports maintained by Mark Lottor at:
- connectivity table maintained by Larry Landweber at:
- USENET growth summary compiled from Quarterman and Hauben sources above,
and news.lists postings
Contributors to Hobbes' Internet Timeline have their initials next to the
contributed items in the form (:zzz:) and are:
amk -Alex McKenzie (email@example.com)
esr - Eric S. Raymond (locke.ccil.org)
feg - Farrell E. Gerbode (firstname.lastname@example.org)
gck - Gary C. Kessler (email@example.com)
glg - Gail L. Grant (firstname.lastname@example.org)
jg1 - Jim Gaynor (email@example.com)
mpc - Mellisa P. Chase (firstname.lastname@example.org)
ph1 - Peter Hoffman (email@example.com)
sc1 - Susan Calcari (firstname.lastname@example.org)
sk2 - Stan Kulikowski (email@example.com) - see sources section
vgc -Vinton Cerf (firstname.lastname@example.org) - see sources section
:-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) ;-) Help the Author (-: (-: (-: (-: (-: (-: (-:
The author is on an eternal genealogical search. If you know of someone
whose last name is Zakon or could spare 1 minute to check your local phone
book, please e-mail any info (i.e., name, phone, address, city) to
email@example.com your help is greatly appreciated.
Archive-name: Hobbes' Internet Timeline v1.4
Last-modified: 5 September 1994
Maintainer: Robert H'obbes' Zakon, Comments & corrections should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org
All artwork created by Edge Creations, Inc.
Artwork and HTML design Copyright 1995 Edge Creations, Inc.
HTML Version coded by Jeffrey Rubin
Most recent update: 3/14/1995
For more information contact: Jeffrey Rubin email@example.com